CPNI introduction to Physical Security
Effective physical security of an asset is achieved by multi-layering the different measures, what is commonly referred to as ‘defence-in-depth’. The concept is based on the principle that the security of an asset is not significantly reduced with the loss of any single layer. Each layer of security may be comprised of different elements, including for example:
- Measures to assist in the detection of threat weapons, including for example explosives, knives, firearms, chemical/biological/radiological material etc.
- Measures to assist in the detection, tracking and monitoring of intruders and other threats, such as unmanned aerial vehicles
- Access control and locking systems
- Physical and active barriers to deny or delay the progress of adversaries
- Measures to protect people or assets from the effect of blast or ballistic attack
- Measures to protect against or limit the spread of chemical, biological or radiological material
- Measures to protect sensitive (e.g. classified) material or assets
- Command and control
- The response to an incident
- Security personnel (covered within the Personnel and People Security)
The above measures are interdependent and their effectiveness will be dictated by their ability to support one another. For this and a variety of other reasons, CPNI recommends that all security measures are developed following the Operational Requirements (OR) process.